- During the l960s, General Electric, MIT, and Bell Labs worked on a
time-sharing operating system (MULTICS).
- Ken Thompson (Bell Labs), who worked on the MULTICS project, wanted to retain Space Wars for his use; during the early 1970s, he created an operating system to run on a PDP7 (UNICS --| UNIX).
- Because AT&T was a monopoly at that time, they could not sell the operating system, they made it available to universities: Carnegie Mellon and UC Berkeley.
- During the 1980s, the end of the AT&T monopoly and the need for an operating system for 16-bit microcomputers created a market for UNIX.
- Current Versions:
System V (Bell labs), AIX (IBM), UC Berkeley
- UNIX Reference Books:
any UNIX book is good -- System V is slightly more preferable.
Turn on the power for the terminal -- you must wait a few moments until the RISC System/6000 prompt is displayed. Note: UNIX is case-sensitive! Be sure the CAPS-LOCK key is OFF.
|login: [user id]||six letters (last) + 2 letters (first)|
|password: [ password]||social security number (no hyphens)|
The dollar sign ($) prompt indicates that you have successfully accessed the UNIX operating system.
|$ pwd||shows where you are on the system (current directory)|
|$ ls -FCA||shows what files and directories exist in current directory|
|$ who||shows the users currently on the system|
|$ passwd||allows the user to change his/her password|
Directory Tree Structure:
Files are maintained in UNIX using a tree structure. There is a single root directory (/) which may be further divided into subdirectories; each subdirectory may in turn be further divided into subdirectories. Any of these areas are capable of storing files.
Three directories have special significance:
|root directory||the top-level directory from which all others descend|
|home directory||the directory to which you are assigned when you log in " /www.d/wwwserver/yourusername "|
|current directory||the directory to which you are currently assigned|
The following UNIX commands are appropriate to navigating the tree structure organization:
|$ cd||change to home directory|
|$ cd /||change to root directory|
|$ cd [ path ]||change to directory specified by (path)|
|$ cd ..||change to directory one level up (parent directory)|
|$ mkdir [direct_name]||to "make" a new directory|
|$ rmdir [direct_name]||to "remove" an obsolete directory|
Objects (i.e., files and subdirectories) which are "underneath" the current directory in the tree structure may be referenced by a partially-qualified name; otherwise, they must be referenced by a fully-qualified name.
|public_html/img/my.gif||partially-qualified name (from directory /www.d/wwwserver/scrocco)|
|$ cat [filename]||display contents of [filename], without pause|
|$ pg [filename]||display contents of [filename], with pause - use |
|$ cp [from] [to]||"copy" file [from] to new file [to]|
|$ mv [from] [to]||"move" file [from] to new file [to]|
|$ rm [old]||"moves" file [old]|
|$ mail [user id]||to send mail to another user|
|to retrieve your own mail|
|$ man [command]||to obtain help concerning [command]|
|use [SpaceBar] to advance screens|
|$ env||display UNIX environment|
|$ stty||display terminal settings|
|$ set||display other settings|